Polar Plots

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Download NetCDF Data

SuperMAG global data are distributed in NetCDF format. Please see the NetCDF website for more details on this format. The files are for the complete day of interest.

Rules of the Road

SuperMAG is made possible by the generous contribution by a long list of collaborators. To ensure their continued operation the user must follow the below rules-of-the-road. Data, plots or derived data products are provided under the limitations of "fair use" and cannot be redistributed. Contact the individual instrument PI and the SuperMAG PI for requests that are in conflict with these restrictions.

The user is requested to acknowledge individual collaborators and SuperMAG when original data, derived data, movies, or data products are used in publications and/or presentations.

In all cases:

  1. Include acknowledgement as listed on the SuperMAG website.
  2. Include references to a technical papers for stations used.
  3. Include SuperMAG reference: Gjerloev, J. W. (2012), The SuperMAG data processing technique, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A09213, doi:10.1029/2012JA017683.

In cases that a few stations play a key role and their data are central to the scientific conclusion of the paper:

  1. Offer of co-authorship to the PI (or PIs) of those stations.


For the ground magnetometer data we gratefully acknowledge: Intermagnet; USGS, Jeffrey J. Love; CARISMA, PI Ian Mann; CANMOS; The S-RAMP Database, PI K. Yumoto and Dr. K. Shiokawa; The SPIDR database; AARI, PI Oleg Troshichev; The MACCS program, PI M. Engebretson, Geomagnetism Unit of the Geological Survey of Canada; GIMA; MEASURE, UCLA IGPP and Florida Institute of Technology; SAMBA, PI Eftyhia Zesta; 210 Chain, PI K. Yumoto; SAMNET, PI Farideh Honary; The institutes who maintain the IMAGE magnetometer array, PI Eija Tanskanen; PENGUIN; AUTUMN, PI Martin Connors; DTU Space, PI Dr. Rico Behlke; South Pole and McMurdo Magnetometer, PI's Louis J. Lanzarotti and Alan T. Weatherwax; ICESTAR; RAPIDMAG; PENGUIn; British Artarctic Survey; McMac, PI Dr. Peter Chi; BGS, PI Dr. Susan Macmillan; Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN); GFZ, PI Dr. Juergen Matzka; MFGI, PI B. Heilig; IGFPAS, PI J. Reda; University of L’Aquila, PI M. Vellante; SuperMAG, PI Jesper W. Gjerloev.

References (alphabetically):

Lichtenberger J., M. Clilverd, B. Heilig, M. Vellante, J. Manninen, C. Rodger, A. Collier, A. Jørgensen, J. Reda, R. Holzworth, and R. Friedel (2013), The plasmasphere during a space weather event: first results from the PLASMON project, J. Space Weather Space Clim., 3, A23 (www.swsc-journal.org/articles/swsc/pdf/2013/01/swsc120062.pdf).

IMAGE Chain:
Tanskanen, E.I. (2009), A comprehensive high-throughput analysis of substorms observed by IMAGE magnetometer network: Years 1993-2003 examined, 114, A05204, doi:10.1029/2008JA013682.

Engebretson, M. J., W. J. Hughes, J. L. Alford, E. Zesta, L. J. Cahill, Jr., R. L. Arnoldy, and G. D. Reeves (1995), Magnetometer array for cusp and cleft studies observations of the spatial extent of broadband ULF magnetic pulsations at cusp/cleft latitudes , J. Geophys. Res., 100, 19371-19386, doi:10.1029/95JA00768.

McMAC Chain:
Chi, P. J., M. J. Engebretson, M. B. Moldwin, C. T. Russell, I. R. Mann, M. R. Hairston, M. Reno, J. Goldstein, L. I. Winkler, J. L. Cruz-Abeyro, D.-H. Lee, K.Yumoto, R. Dalrymple, B. Chen, and J. P. Gibson (2013), Sounding of the plasmasphere by Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain magnetometers, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, doi:10.1002/jgra.50274.

MAGDAS / 210 Chain:
Yumoto, K,. and the CPMN Group (2001), Characteristics of Pi 2 magnetic pulsations observed at the CPMN stations: A review of the STEP results, Earth Planets Space, 53, 981-992.

Gjerloev, J. W. (2012), The SuperMAG data processing technique, J. Geophys. Res., 117 , A09213, doi:10.1029/2012JA017683.

Ground Magnetometer Data

Polar plots of ground level magnetic field perturbations. Vectors are deduced from the two horizontal components and are rotated 90° clockwise to indicate ionospheric equivalent current direction. Units are nT. Polar plots are in magnetic coordinates centered at the magnetic pole and hence the continents are somewhat distorted.

  1. Select date, time, cadence and various plotting options using controls to the left.
  2. Select ground magnetometer plotting options.
  3. Select IMAGE FUV plotting options. The red/green bar indicates approximate availability.
  4. Select various options for displaying the selected data.

SuperMAG Coordinate system and baseline

Fitted Magnetometer Vectors

The uniformly gridded data are derived from statistical-based method which combines with basis function expansion techniques (Waters et al., 2015) to provide extensive maps of the ground level perturbation magnetic field from 40° magnetic latitude to the magnetic pole for all longitudes. The method combines all available data from the SuperMAG data base, Principal Component Analysis, and a spherical cap harmonic basis function expansion in order to fill in magnetic perturbation data where there are no magnetometers and produce the poloidal current potential. The final uniform solutions are derived from measured perturbations and the fill-in (model) vectors. On the website are shown the measured perturbations and the final fitted solutions. The fill-in (model) vectors are not shown.


Waters, C. L., J. W. Gjerloev, M. Dupont, and R. J. Barnes (2015), Global maps of ground magnetometer data, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120,doi:10.1002/2015JA021596

ULF Waves

ULF data products are derived from the 1-min magnetometer data provided by the SuperMAG collaborators. If you use the ULF data products in publications and/or presentations please clearly indicate that these are SuperMAG derived ULF data.

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Global Auroral Images

SuperMAG includes Auroral Images from the IMAGE Far Ultraviolet Image and Polar Visible Imaging System (VIS).

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Spacecraft Foot Points

The foot points of the NASA Van Allen Probes spacecraft and the ESA SWARM spacecraft are included in the polar plots.

The instantaneous position of the NASA Van Allen Probes are marked by circles on the plot. The orbit track shows the last six (6) hours, marked with arrows at hourly intervals pointing in the direction the spacecraft is moving. The track for Van Allen Probe A is shown in red, Van Allen Probe B is shown in blue.

The foot point is calculated by tracing from the spacecraft location to the ground along a magnetic field line. The magnetic field model is the Olsen-Pfitzer 1997 Quiet time model.

The instantaneous position of the ESA SWARM spacecraft are marked by triangles on the plot.SWARM A is shown in red, SWARM B in green, and SWARM C in blue.

SuperMAG gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the NASA Van Allen Probes Mission and the ESA Swarm Mission for the use of these spacecraft ephemerides.

Solar Wind Data

Solar Wind data has been propagated to the front of the magnetosphere (courtesy Dr. James Weygand) using the pseudo-minimum variance technique of Dan Weimer et al. [2003; 2004].

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